When you walk through a museum your mind got lost throughout the walk, when suddenly you look up and see an interesting and fascinating object. Your reaction to the piece is that you try to identify the specimen(Tapestry).
Tapestries, particularly European tapestry woven prior to the 20th century are relatively rare. The types of art are usually viewed on a daily basis when we finally see a tapestry. Adding to the confusion is the fact that tapestries may seem to resemble other types of artworks such as paintings. On canvas, murals, large drawings, or even printed fabrics.
By literal meaning, a tapestry is a weft-faced plain weave with discontinuous wefts that will conceal all of the wraps. Simply you weave the warp and weft threads together. It is very easy to make a tapestry.
At the core, tapestry weaving is a matter of simple math. A tapestry is a grid composed of threads that are fixed on a large frame which is known as a loom. The vertical threads are called warps and the horizontal threads are known as wefts. The wefts are actually a collection of lots of separate pieces of wool or silk threads. In all the different colors. A tapestry is made repeatedly weaving horizontal threads over and under the vertical threads, squishing those horizontal threads down so they are very close together, thus completely hiding the vertical threads from view.
The vertical warp threads are vital components of each piece these are the backbone of every tapestry and provide the support for the weft threads. Canvas and weft threads are colors that will gradually build up to form a tapestry picture. The image below illustrates the complex array of colored weft threads partly woven onto war, hanging down attached to wooden spools visible on the reverse of a tapestry during weaving.
Colored wefts are entirely cover the warps, the figurative design they have built which will be visible on the front and back of the tapestry.
Surface of tapestry
Tapestries may look like they are crafted from brushstrokes that are not painted. In fact, using paint on the surface of tapestry was once considered a crime punishable by a large fine or worse. Though sometimes a tapestry basic weave is altered slightly in an attempt to imitate but should not recreate. Look at other types of textiles such as silks, velvets, or embroidered fabrics.
Historically weavers used to work while facing what would be the back of the tapestry. They copied with their colored weft threads the tapestry design the design referred to as a cartoon. Which has been taken in the form of a painting which is made on cloth or paper, the same size as the planned tapestry. The cartoon was either temporary which was attached to the loom, flushed against the back of warp threads, visible in the gaps between the warps. Weavers could avoid the reversal of design by using the mirror method to copy the design. The cartoon was not physically part of the completed tapestry and it could be reused multiple times in order to make duplicate tapestries.
For centuries tapestries were made by hand, but in the late 19th and early 20th century technologies and innovations were introduced, the possibility of machine-woven tapestries. Today’s workshops and manufactories still produce hand woven and machine woven tapestries. But some tapestry weavers still follow the traditional process.
At heirloom techniques, it offers a variety of medieval-inspired, handwoven tapestries for your home. Tapestries are still handwoven by skilled artisans and many are designed to replicate medieval tapestries. The process for making them is different than it was back then. One of the best parts of tapestries is the colorful and fascinating history behind them.
Tapestry describes a variety of textiles, historically it refers to a specific type of weft-faced textile that is handwoven on a loom. In Europe, the loom is composed of two rollers between, there are plain warp threads. In large factories, tapestries of France and it is now known as Belgium the warps are made up of wool. Germany they were made out of linen the warps are either stretched vertically or horizontally. It depends on whether the loom is oriented higher or lower.
The warps have a small space between them which is called shed. The weaver passes colored threads wrapped around a shuttle through a shed. From time to time the weavers will beat down which develops in order to ensure the warps are entirely covered by the weft. By using a variety of colors, the weaver creates an image or pattern.
New weaving strategy
In the present day, tapestry production the weft threads are usually made of twisted wool, but in the past, some high-end tapestries includes silk. Between 1400 and 1530, the weavers created a new weaving strategy that enables them to use hatching and combination of various materials to create more realistic, interesting, and fascinating textures. In medieval times tapestry designs were copied from cartoons, a full-scale pattern that is used.
In present-day tapestry production, weft threads are usually made of twisted wool but in past,. There were high-end tapestries that included silk. Between 1400 AND 1530 the Flemish weavers created a new weaving strategy. That enabled them to use hatchings, which are known as interlocking triangles of colors and combinations of various materials to create more realistic and interesting textures, recreating the appearance of paintings.
In the beginning, the weavers trace the cartoon onto the warps. On a high-warp loom, the cartoon is hung behind the weaver, for a low-warp loom. Traditionally, it was folded and placed underneath warp threads. Low-warp looms offer another advantage in drawstrings. That create the sheds are controlled with foot pedals, it allows the wearer greater freedom with the hands. Though, there is a disadvantage to using low-warp looms. In the medieval period, low warp techniques were preferred. This was due to the popularity of complex tapestries, they needed to be able to weave ornate patterns in a quick amount of time, making high-warp looms unavailable.
HIGH -WARP vs LOW WARP:
There are four factors that contribute to the quality of tapestry. The quality of the cartoon, the skill of the weavers, the finesses of the weave, and the quality of materials. In the late middle ages, how much tapestry cost varied widely due to these factors. One of the key elements to the quality of tapestries was the amount of manpower involved.
Producing tapestries was incredibly labor-intensive, and required weavers, particularly large tapestries. It is estimated weavers were able to produce one square yard of the tapestry a month. The higher the quality of production, the slower the process meaning. A weaver could produce less than half a square yard of tapestry in a month. A tapestry was six yards high and nine-yard wide, could take five weavers more than nine months to weave. The finer materials the longer it would take as well this means that a set of tapestries. That are commonly commissioned by noble people could take 30 weavers more than a year to complete.
The materials with which a tapestry was made had an even greater impact on the cost of a tapestry than the sheer amount of labor involved. Most warps and wefts were made of wool from England or Spain. Higher quality pieces included silk from Spain or Italy and the absolute highest quality tapestries incorporated silver-wrapped silk thread from Cyprus or Venice. Tapestries that include silk cost as much as four times as much as solely with wool. Including metallic thread increased the cost of a tapestry by a factor of 20 compared to tapestries woven only with coarse wool. At heirloom tapestries, the process is no longer labor-intensive as it was in medieval times.